“Leaves of three, let it be” is a common chant, but when it comes to poison oak vs poison ivy, they share this characteristic. Both plants are similar in many ways as they are both bringers of irritating rashes and allergic reactions. But how do we differentiate between the two?
Poison Oak vs Poison Ivy: The Facts
There are several angles to look at when making an evaluation of poison oak vs poison ivy. Some perspectives we can assess are distribution and habitat, the toxins present, description and appearance, symptoms they can produce, and treatment.
- Distribution and Habitat – There are two types of poison oak. One type can grow on the West Coast of North America while the other type grows in the Eastern United States. These usually occur in oak woodlands and forests and are found in damp, semi-shady areas near running water. They are also capable of thriving under direct sunlight.Poison ivy, on the other hand, can grow throughout much of North America, including Canada and even the mountainous areas of Mexico. They are found in wooded areas and can grow in exposed rocky areas and open fields in disturbed regions. It can survive in various soil types, but is most found in flooding or brackish water.
- Appearance – Poison oak can come in the form of a small shrub or a vine that clings to walls and trees. The interesting thing with the poison oak plant is that it will often mimic the shape and size of nearby plants. The leaves are divided into three leaflets, usually 3.5 to 10 centimeters long, with toothed or lobed edges that resemble the leaves of oak trees but are glossier. When first unfolding, it can take on a bronze color that turns bright green in spring, yellow green to reddish in summer, and bright red or pink in the fall. They have white flowers in the spring which develops into greenish-white or tan berries.Poison ivy is similar to poison oak in the sense that they also have three leaflets. Young leaves are light green in color that turn into dark green once matured. These leaves turn bright red during the fall. The leaflets can grow 3 to 12 centimeters long, and has no teeth along the edge unlike poison oak. Poison ivy grows as vines and not as shrubs, and the plant has no thorns.
- Toxin – Both poison oak and poison ivy secretes the same substance that causes irritation and allergies. Both plants have surface oil, called urushiol, which is a yellow liquid that turns into a blackish glaze after it seeps out of the plant and comes in contact with oxygen. This toxin is responsible for the poison ivy and poison oak symptoms that many are fearful of.
- Symptoms and Treatment – Poison ivy and poison oak symptoms are similar because they both cause intense itchiness that develops into linear rashes. Vesicles and blister formation can follow which can be painful to the skin. Poison oak treatment includes washing with running water, use of calamine lotion and other over-the-counter solutions. Home remedies for poison oak is the same for poison ivy.
Points To Remember:
Poison oak can grow in the Western and Eastern regions of North America while poison ivy typically grows in throughout much of North America. Poison oak can grow as either vines or shrubs, but poison ivy is typically a vine. Poison oak loves to grow near fresh running water, while poison ivy prefers salty or briny water.
In terms of appearance, poison oak can be bronze in color while young and unfolding, while poison ivy is light green in color. Poison oak has toothed edges of the leaves while poison ivy does not. Both have three leaflets and turn bright red during spring.
When it comes to poison oak vs poison ivy, there are some differences in terms of appearance and location of growth, however, they produce the same toxin and the treatment is more or less identical.
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